The Physiology of Health

a Canadian-focused health research project
1993 - present

Health and Disease in Canada

Chief Public Health Officer's Reports on The State of Public Health in Canada, Growing Up Well – Priorities for a Healthy Future , 2009, Public Health Agency of Canada

Canadian Cancer Statistics, 2015, Special topic: Predictions of the future burden of cancer in Canada, Canadian Cancer Society’s Advisory Committee on Cancer Statistics, Toronto, ON: Canadian Cancer Society; May 2015, adapted June 2015, ISSN 0835-2976

Neil Stuart and Jim Adams, The Sustainability of Canada's Healthcare System: A Framework for Advancing the Debate, Healthcare Quarterly, 10(2) April 2007: 96-103.doi:10.12927/hcq.2007.18839, Longwoods Review

Andrew Rickard, Grim outlook for Canadian health care system, Nov. 23, 2015, Life and Health Insurance, The Insurance and Investment Journal

Heindel JJ, Vandenberg LN, Developmental origins of health and disease: a paradigm for understanding disease cause and prevention, Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015 Apr;27(2):248-53. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000191

A Performance Measurement Framework for the Canadian Health System, 2012, Canadian Institute for Health Information

Ben Berry, Health and Wellness Trends for Canada and the World, October 2011, The Government of Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada , The Canadian Consumer Behaviour, Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Food Products, May 2010, Statistics Canada

International Markets Bureau, Market Indicator Report, Socially Conscious Consumer Trends - Sustainability, November 2012

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada’s Organic Industry at a Glance, 2009, 
Date modified: 2013-09-26, Romina Code, Horticulture and Cross Sectoral Division, Markets and Industry Services Branch

Canadian organic production information and statistics: About Organic in Canada, Dalhousie University, Faculty of Agriculture

Canadian Organic Growers, Canada Organic Statistics 2011,  February 2015

Planning for a Sustainable Future: A Federal Sustainable Development Strategy for Canada, October 2010, Sustainable Development Office, Environment Canada

Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Public Health Agency of Canada, Risk Sciences International, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Correspondence: Deepa Rao, Institute of Population Health, Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada: Metabolic syndrome and chronic disease, February 2014, Volume 34 · Number 1, Public Health Agency of Canada 

Louise Gagnon, July 20, 2004, Medical error affects nearly 25% of Canadians, vol. 171 no. 2 doi: 10.1503/cmaj.1041037, CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

G. Ross Baker, Peter G. Norton, Virginia Flintoft, Canadian Adverse Events Study, October 12, 2004, vol. 171 no. 8 doi: 10.1503/cmaj.1041120, CMAJ

Liane Craig, Sandra Koppert, November 1, 2012, A Prescription for Safer Care: Medication Reconciliation, CIHI

Accreditation Canada, the Canadian Institute for Health Information, the Canadian Patient Safety Institute, and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada, 2012, Medication Reconciliation in Canada: Raising The Bar

Statistics Canada, 2015-12-10, Leading causes of death, (Both sexes), Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 102-0561

Caryn Pearson, Teresa Janz, Jennifer Ali, 2012, Mental and substance use disorders in Canada, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 82-624-X

The Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS), Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS), Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey, 2012, Health Canada

Congenital Anomalies in Canada 2013, A Perinatal Health Surveillance Report, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, 2013

Rapoport, John; Jacobs, Philip; Bell, Neil R; Klarenbach, Scott, Refining the measurement of the economic burden of chronic diseases in Canada, 2004, Chronic Diseases in Canada, ProQuest, Volume 25, Number1

McNally, J Dayre; Matheson, Doug A; Bakowsky, Volodko S., The epidemiology of self-reported fibromyalagia in Canada, Chronic Diseases in Canada 27.1 (2006): 9-16, ProQuest

Annual Statistics Report, 2012-13, Manitoba Health Information Management, Manitoba Health

Basic Health Habits

No. 1. Sleep

Carla S. Möller-Levet, Simon N. Archer, Giselda Bucca, Emma E. Laing, Ana Slak, Renata Kabiljo, June C. Y. Lo, Nayantara Santhi, Malcolm von Schantz, Colin P. Smith and Derk-Jan Dijk, Effects of insufficient sleep on circadian rhythmicity and expression amplitude of the human blood transcriptome, PNAS February 25, 2013. 201217154; published ahead of print February 25, 2013.

Charles M. Morin, Mélanie LeBlanc, Lynda Bélanger, Hans Ivers, Chantal Mérette, Sleep disorders affect 40 percent of Canadians, September 8, 2011,
Université Laval, ScienceDaily 

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research; Colten HR, Altevogt BM, editors, Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem., 2006, Sleep Physiology, Chapter 2, National Academies Press (US)

Meir Kryger, MD and Phyllis Zee, MD, Sleep-Wake Cycle: Its Physiology and Impact on Health, 2006, The National Sleep Foundation (NSF)

Bradley Bush, ND, and Tori Hudson, ND, The Role of Cortisol in Sleep: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis interacts with sleep in multiple ways. This article reviews the effects of the HPA axis on sleep and the converse. June 2010, Volume 2 Issue 6, Natural Medicine Journal

What is the Impact of Sleep Apnea on Canadians? 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Sleep Apnea Rapid Response, Public Health Agency of Canada, HP35-19/1-2010E-PDF ISBN: 978-1-100-17359-7

Sunil Sharma, Mani Kavuru, Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview, 2010, International Journal of Endocrinology PMC2929498, The National Center for Biotechnology Information

Barry M. Popkin, Kristen E. D’Anci, and Irwin H. Rosenberg, TA Wehr, In short photoperiods, human sleep is biphasic., 1992, NCBI, US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health,  Jun:1(2):103-107

Katharina Wulff, Silvia Gatti, Joseph G. Wettstein & Russell G. Foster, Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disease, August 2010 Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 11, 589-599, doi:10.1038/nrn2868

Davide Gnocchi, Matteo Pedrelli, Eva Hurt-Camejo, Paolo Parini , Lipids around the Clock: Focus on Circadian Rhythms and Lipid Metabolism, 5 February 2015, Biology 2015, 4(1), 104-132; doi:10.3390/biology4010104, MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)

Hogenkamp, Pleunie; Nilsson, Emil; VC, Nilsson; Chapman, Colin; Vogel, Heike; LS, Lundberg; Zarei, Sana; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne; JM, Brunstorm; Benedict, Christian; HB, Schiöth, Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2013

Guang Yang, Cora Sau Wan Lai, Joseph Cichon, Lei Ma, Wei Li, Wen-Biao Gan, Sleep promotes branch-specific formation of dendritic spines after learning, Science  06 Jun 2014: Vol. 344, Issue 6188, pp. 1173-1178, DOI: 10.1126/science.1249098

How Sleep Clears the Brain, National Institutes of Health, October 28, 2013

Xie L, Kang H, Xu Q, Chen MJ, Liao Y, Thiyagarajan M, O'Donnell J, Christensen DJ, Nicholson C, Iliff JJ, Takano T, Deane R, Nedergaard M., Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain, Science. 2013 Oct 18;342(6156):373-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1241224., PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3880190.

Thomas Brinker, Edward Stopa, John Morrison, and Petra Klinge, A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Fluids Barriers CNS. 2014; 11: 10, Published online 2014 May 1,  doi:  10.1186/2045-8118-11-10, Biomed Central, v.11; 2014PMC4016637

NIH Eunice Kennedy Shriver National institute of Child and Human Development, What happens during sleep? Sleep Condition Information, Last Reviewed Date12/1/2016

Sid Kouider, Thomas Andrillon, Leonardo S.Barbosa, Louise Goupil, Tristan A.Bekinschtein,  Inducing Task-Relevant Responses to Speech in the Sleeping Brain, Science Direct, Current Biology, Volume 24, Issue 18, 22 September 2014,

Statistics Canada Health Report, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Suzy L. Wong and Isabelle Michaud, Duration and quality of sleep among Canadians aged 18 to 79, September 20, 2017

Carla S. Möller-Levet, Simon N. Archer, Giselda Bucca, Emma E. Laing, Ana Slak, Renata Kabiljo, June C. Y. Lo, Nayantara Santhi, Malcolm von Schantz, Colin P. Smith and Derk-Jan Dijk, Effects of insufficient sleep on circadian rhythmicity and expression amplitude of the human blood transcriptome, PNAS February 25, 2013. 201217154; published ahead of print February 25, 2013,

No. 2. Digestive Health and Nutrition

Klok, M. D., Jakobsdottir, S. and Drent, M. L. (2007), The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review. Obesity Reviews, 8: 21–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00270.x

Establishing Digestive Health as a Priority for Canadians, 2009, The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation, National Digestive Disorders Prevalence & Impact Study Report, Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

Kristjan R. Jessen & Rhona Mirsky, Glial cells in the enteric nervous system contain glial fibrillary acidic protein, 14 August 1980, Nature volume 286, pages 736–737

Guarner F., Enteric Flora in Health and Disease, Digestion, 2006;73:5–12,

Falk PG, Hooper, Midtvedt T, Gordon: Creating and maintaining the gastrointestinal ecosystem: what we know and need to know from gnotobiology, 2006, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998;62:1157–1170

Suau A, Bonnet R, Sutren M, Godon JJ, Gibson G, Collins MD, Dore J: Direct rDNA community analysis reveals a myriad of novel bacterial lineages within the human gut, Appl Environ Microbiol 1999;65:4799–4807

Kristina Campbell,l 1 JUL 2016, New data on the link between gut bacteria, melatonin, and the circadian clock, Gut Brain Axis, Gut Microbiota, Mood & Wellbeing, Research & Practice

Jiffin K. Paulose, John M. Wright, Akruti G Patel, Vincent M. Cassone, Published: January 11, 2016,  Human Gut Bacteria Are Sensitive to Melatonin and Express Endogenous Circadian Rhythmicity,

Stanly B. Williams, Ioannis Vakonakis, Susan S. Golden, and Andy C. LiWang, Structure and function from the circadian clock protein KaiA of Synechococcus elongatus: A potential clock input mechanism, November 26, 2002, number 24, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (99, 15357–15362

Thomas C.G. Bosch and Margaret J. McFall-Ngai, Metaorganisms as the new frontier, 2011 Jul 6. doi:  10.1016/j.zool.2011.04.001

Understanding Statistics on Eating Disorders, 2002, NEDIC National Eating Disorders Information Centre

Tahany Gadallaa, Niva Piran, Eating Disorders and Substance Abuse in Canadian Men and Women: A National Study, 2007, Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 189-203, Taylor & Francis GroupGlial cells in the enteric nervous system contain glial fibrillary acidic protein

Jesse Bertinato, Kuan Chiao Wang, Stephen Hayward, Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin ResistanceNutrients. 2017 Mar; 9(3): 296.
Published online 2017 Mar 17. doi:  10.3390/nu9030296, PMCID: PMC5372959
PMID: 28304338

Do Canadian Adults Meet Their Nutrient Requirements Through Food Intake Alone?, Health Canada, 2012, Cat. No.: H164-112/3-2012E-PDF, ISBN: 978-1-100-20026-2

Holmes AJ1, Chew, Colakoglu, Cliff JB, Eline Klaassens , Read MN, Solon-Biet SM, McMahon AC, Cogger VC, Ruohonen K, Raubenheimer D, Le Couteur DG, Simpson SJ, Diet-Microbiome Interactions in Health Are Controlled by Intestinal Nitrogen Source ConstraintsCell Metab. 2017 Jan 10;25(1):140-151. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.10.021. Epub 2016 Nov 23., PMID: 27889387 

Krautkramer KA, Kreznar JH, Romano KA, Vivas EI, Barrett-Wilt GA, Rabaglia ME, Keller MP, Attie AD, Rey FE, Denu JM, Diet-Microbiota Interactions Mediate Global Epigenetic Programming in Multiple Host Tissues, Mol Cell. 2016 Dec 1;64(5):982-992. Epub 2016 Nov 23., PMID: 27889451 PMCID: PMC5227652 

No. 3. Hydration

Jequier E, Constant F. Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:115–123, PubMed

Barry M. Popkin, Kristen E. D’Anci, Irwin H. Rosenberg, Water, Hydration and Health, 2011 Aug 1, NCBI, PMC US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Stookey JD, Purser JL, Pieper CF, Cohen HJ, Plasma hypertonicity: another marker of frailty?, 2004 Aug;52(8):1313-20, PubMed

Josef Tyls, PhD, Are You Chronically Dehydrated?, January 1, 2005, Updated: Apr 24, 2015, Alive

Lanuke K, Fainsinger RL, DeMoissac D., Hydration management at the end of life., 2004 Apr; Journal of Palliative Medicine, 7(2):257-63 PubMed, NCBI

No. 4. Physical Activity

Robert R Wolfe, University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Surgery and Shriners Burns Hospital, Metabolism Unit, Galveston, TX, 2006 American Society for Clinical Nutrition, The Underappreciated Role of Muscle in Health and Disease, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Jean-Michel Billette and Teresa Janz, Injuries in Canada: Insights from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Date modified: 2015-11-27, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 82-624-X

SMARTRISK. The economic burden of injury in Canada. SMARTRISK, Toronto, 2009 

Canadian Institute for Health Information, Surgical Volume Trends, Within and Beyond Wait Time Priority Areas, 2008, Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information
Canadian Institute for Health Information. Hip and Knee Replacements in Canada, 2007, Annual Report, Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information

Canadian Institute for Health Information, Joint replacements in Canada: More patients, more surgeries, less time in hospital, Canadian Joint Replacement Registry 2015 Annual Report, September 2015

Stephan Blumenthal, M.D.; Marco Nadig, M.D.; Christian Gerber, M.D.; Alain Borgeat, M.D., Severe Airway Obstruction during Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery, December 2003, Anesthesiology 12 2003, Vol.99, 1455-1456. doi:, ASA Publications

M.D. Stephen S. Burkhart, M.D. Wesley M. Nottage, M.D. Darrell J. Ogilvie-Harris, M.D. Harvey S. Kohn, M.D. Anthony Pachelli, Partial repair of irreparable rotator cuff tears, August 1994, Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 363-370, ScienceDirect

A.M. Wiley, M.Ch., F.R.C.S., F.R.C.S.(C), Arthroscopic appearance of frozen shoulder, Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery
Volume 7, Issue 2, June 1991, Pages 138-143

Leonardo Barbosa Barreto de Brito, Djalma Rabelo Ricardo, Denise Sardinha Mendes Soares de Araújo, Plínio Santos Ramos, Jonathan Myers, Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo, Ability to sit and rise from the floor as a predictor of all-cause mortality, 2012, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 2047487312471759, SAGE Journals

Directly measured physical activity of adults, 2012 and 2013, Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), Statistics Canada, 82-625-X

BRAD J. SCHOENFELD, Global Fitness Services, THE MECHANISMS OF MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY AND THEIR APPLICATION TO RESISTANCE TRAINING, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association, VOLUME 24 | NUMBER 10 | OCTOBER 2010

Morgan JE, Partridge TA, Muscle satellite cells, Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2003, Aug;35(8):1151-6

Chargé SB, Rudnicki MA., Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle regeneration, Physiol Rev. 2004 Jan;84(1):209-38, PMID: 14715915 DOI:10.1152/physrev.00019.2003

Bryon R. McKay  Kyle G. Toth  Mark A. Tarnopolsky  Gianni Parise, Satellite cell number and cell cycle kinetics in response to acute myotrauma in humans: immunohistochemistry versus flow cytometry, 31 August 2010

Espen E. Spangenburg  Derek Le Roith  Chris W. Ward  Sue C. Bodine, A functional insulin‐like growth factor receptor is not necessary for load‐induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, 02 January 2008

Martin Flueck, and Geoffrey Goldspink POINT:COUNTERPOINT: IGF [Insulin-like growth factor I (somatomedin C or mature IGF-I)] is/is not the major physiological regulator of muscle mass, 1 JUN, 2010 Team:, The Microtrauma Muscle Growth Theory, Jan 2017

Jason Brumitt, PT, PhD, ATC, CSCS,  and Tyler Cuddeford, PT, PhD, CURRENT CONCEPTS OF MUSCLE AND TENDON ADAPTATION TO STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING, Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2015 Nov; 10(6): 748–759, PMCID: PMC4637912

PMID: 26618057

Boivin, Alexander C., "The Effects of Resistance Training Frequency On Muscle Hypertrophy And Strength In Healthy Trained Individuals: Literature Review" (2016). Honors in the Major Theses. 109,

No. 5. Breathing

Life and Breath: Respiratory Disease in Canada (2007), Public Health Agency of Canada Report

Exploring Self-Awareness Levels of Major Lung Disease Risk Factors Among Canadians Most at Risk, October 2010, The Lung Association

Richard T. Burnett, Jeffrey R. Brook, Wesley T. Yung, Robert E. Dales, Daniel Krewski , Association between Ozone and Hospitalization for Respiratory Diseases in 16 Canadian Cities, January 1997, Elsevier, Environmental Research, Volume 72, Issue 1, Pages 24-31, ScienceDirect

David R. Boyda, Stephen J. Genuis, The environmental burden of disease in Canada: Respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and congenital affliction, February 2008, Elsevier, Environmental Research, Volume 106, Issue 2, Pages 240–249, ScienceDirect

Jeffrey C. Kwong, Michael A. Campitelli, Laura C. Rosella, Obesity and Respiratory Hospitalizations During Influenza Seasons in Ontario, Canada: A Cohort Study, 2011, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pp. 413-421, Oxford University Press

Yue Chen, MD, PhD, Robert Dales MD, MSc, Mei Lin MD, MSc, The Epidemiology of Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Canadians, July 2003, The Laryngoscope, Wiley Online Library, DOI: 10.1097/00005537-200307000-00016

Al-Rahim R. Habib MSc, Amin R. Javer MD, Jane A. Buxton MBBS, MHSc, A population-based study investigating chronic rhinosinusitis and the incidence of asthma, 21 December 2015, The Laryngoscope, Wiley Online Library, DOI: 10.1002/lary.25831

Gary P Anderson, Endotyping asthma: new insights into key pathogenic mechanisms in a complex, heterogeneous disease, Lancet 2008; 372: 1107–19, Lung Disease Research Group, Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Melbourne

Ingrid Eftedal, Arnar Flatberg, Ivan Drvis, and Zeljko Dujic, Immune and inflammatory responses to freediving calculated from leukocyte gene expression profiles, 01 NOV 2016,

Ravinder Jerath , John W. Edry, Vernon A. Barnes, Vandna Jerath, Physiology of long pranayamic breathing: Neural respiratory elements may provide a mechanism that explains how slow deep breathing shifts the autonomic nervous system, 23 February 2006,

M. Vitacca, E. Clini, L. Bianchi, N. Ambrosino, Acute effects of deep diaphragmatic breathing in COPD patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency, 1998, European Respiratory Journal, DOI: 10.1183/09031936.98.11020408

Marc A. Russo, Danielle M. Santarelli, Dean O’Rourke, The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human, Breathe (Sheff). 2017 Dec; 13(4): 298–309, 
doi: 10.1183/20734735.009817, PMCID: PMC5709795, PMID: 29209423

CHRISTINE RECINTO, THEODORE EFTHEMEOU, P. TONY BOFFELLI, and JAMES W. NAVALTA, Effects of Nasal or Oral Breathing on Anaerobic Power Output and Metabolic ResponsesInt J Exerc Sci. 2017; 10(4): 506–514, 2017 Jul 1, PMCID: PMC5466403, PMID: 28674596

Lacomb, Chase Ovila Platt, Oral vs. Nasal Breathing during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise (2015). UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones. 2372,

Lundberg JO, Nitric oxide and the paranasal sinuses2008 Nov;291(11):1479-84. doi: 10.1002/ar.20782, NCBI, PMID: 18951492 DOI: 10.1002/ar.20782

No. 6. Positive Mental Attitude

Ulrike Bingel, Vishvarani Wanigasekera, Katja Wiech, Roisin Ni Mhuircheartaigh, Michael C. Lee, Markus Ploner, Irene Tracey, The Effect of Treatment Expectation on Drug Efficacy: Imaging the Analgesic Benefit of the Opioid Remifentanil, Science Translational Medicine, 16 Feb 2011: Vol. 3, Issue 70, pp. 70ra14, 
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001244

BARBARA L. FREDRICKSON, HAPPY PEOPLE BECOME HAPPIER THROUGH KINDNESS: A COUNTING KINDNESSES INTERVENTION, J Happiness Stud. 2006 Sep; 7(3): 361–375., doi:  10.1007/s10902-005-3650-z, PMCID: PMC1820947, NIHMSID: NIHMS13827, PMID: 17356687

Nancy Frasure-Smith, PhD; François Lespérance, Jan 2008, Depression and Anxiety as Predictors of 2-Year Cardiac Events in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease, Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(1):62-71, doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2007.4

Charles L. Raison, Lucile Capuron, Andrew H. Mille, Cytokines sing the blues: inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression, Trends in Immunology, Volume 27, Issue 1, p24–31, January 2006, DOI:

Pratt LA, Ford DE, Crum RM, Armenian HK, Gallo JJ, Eaton WW., Depression, psychotropic medication, and risk of myocardial infarction, 1996 Dec 15;94(12):3123-9, NCBI, PMID: 8989119

Andrew Steptoe  Katie O'Donnell  Ellena Badrick  Meena Kumari  Michael Marmot, Neuroendocrine and Inflammatory Factors Associated with Positive Affect in Healthy Men and Women: The Whitehall II Study, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 167, Issue 1, 1 January 2008, Pages 96–102,, Published: 04 October 2007

Yoshino S, Fujimori J, Kohda M., Effects of mirthful laughter on neuroendocrine and immune systems in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, J Rheumatol. 1996 Apr;23(4):793-4, NCBI PMID: 8730156

Bharat B.Aggarwal, Shishir Shishodia, Santosh K. Sandura, Manoj K.Pandeya, Gautam Sethi, Cytokines and depression: an analogic approach, Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 72, Issue 11, 30 November 2006,

Cole SW, Hawkley LC, Arevalo JM, Sung CY, Rose RM, Cacioppo JT, Social regulation of gene expression in human leukocytes, Genome Biol. 2007;8(9):R189, PMID: 17854483 PMCID: PMC2375027 DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r189

Michael H. Antoni, Susan K. Lutgendorf, Bonnie Blomberg, Charles S. Carver, Suzanne Lechner, Alain Diaz, Jamie Stagl, Jesusa M.G. Arevalo, Steven W. Cole, Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Reverses Anxiety-Related Leukocyte Transcriptional DynamicsDOI:, Biological Psychiatry, February 15, 2012Volume 71, Issue 4, Pages 366–372

Ryan RM, On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-beingAnnu Rev Psychol. 2001;52:141-66, PMID: 11148302 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141

No. 7. Sweating

Margaret E. Sears, Kathleen J. Kerr, and Riina I. Bray, Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review, Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2012, Article ID 184745, 10 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/184745

Nathan B. Morris, Matthew N. Cramer, Simon G. Hodder, George Havenith, Ollie Jay, A comparison between the technical absorbent and ventilated capsule methods for measuring local sweat rate, Journal of Applied Physiology Published 15 March 2013 Vol. 114 no. 6, 816-823 DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01088.2012

Paul Quinton, Laura Molyneux, Wan Ip, Annie Dupuis, Julie Avolio, Elizabeth Tullis, Douglas Conrad, A. K. Shamsuddin, Peter Durie, and Tanja Gonsk, β-Adrenergic Sweat Secretion as a Diagnostic Test for Cystic Fibrosis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 186, No. 8 (2012), pp. 732-739

Laukkanen T, Khan H, Zaccardi F, Laukkanen JA, Association between sauna bathing and fatal cardiovascular and all-cause mortality eventsJAMA Intern Med. 2015 Apr;175(4):542-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8187

TANJANIINA LAUKKANEN, SETOR KUNUTSOR, JUSSI KAUHANEN, JARI ANTERO LAUKKANEN, Sauna bathing is inversely associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in middle-aged Finnish men, Age and Ageing 2016; 0: 1–5 © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afw212

Joy Hussain and Marc Cohen, Clinical Effects of Regular Dry Sauna Bathing: A Systematic Review, Hindawi, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2018, Article ID 1857413,

Luetkemeier MJ, Hanisko JM, Aho KM, Skin Tattoos Alter Sweat Rate and Na+ ConcentrationMed Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Jul;49(7):1432-1436. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001244, PMID: 28240705 

Tomoko Ichinose‐Kuwahara  Yoshimitsu Inoue  Yoshiko Iseki  Sachi Hara  Yukio Ogura  Narihiko Kondo, Sex differences in the effects of physical training on sweat gland responses during a graded exercise02 September 2010,

Sean R. Notley  Joonhee Park  Kyoko Tagami  Norikazu Ohnishi  Nigel A. S. Taylor, Variations in body morphology explain sex differences in thermoeffector function during compensable heat stress, 23 February 2017, Experimental Physiology Journal, The Physiological Society

University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Certain characteristics predispose women to different hot flash, night sweat patternsJuly 13, 2016, ScienceDaily

No. 8. Sunlight

M. Nathaniel Mead, Benefits of Sunlight: A Bright Spot for Human HealthEnvironmental Health Perspectives, 2008 Apr; 116(4): A160–A167, PMCID: PMC2290997, PMID: 18414615

Shia T Kent, Leslie A McClure, William L Crosson, Donna K Arnett Virginia G Wadley, Nalini Sathiakumar, Effect of sunlight exposure on cognitive function among depressed and non-depressed participants: a REGARDS cross-sectional study, Environ Health. 2009;  Jul 28, 8: 34,  doi:  10.1186/1476-069X-8-34, PMCID: PMC2728098, PMID: 19638195

Martin Feelisch  Victoria Kolb-Bachofen  Donald Liu  Jon O. Lundberg  Lucia P. Revelo Christoph V. Suschek  Richard B. Weller, Is sunlight good for our heart? European Heart Journal, Volume 31, Issue 9, 1 May 2010, Pages 1041–1045,

Matt DeBow 2007, SUNLIGHT - It's Amazing Effects on Physiology, Medical Light Association

Randy A. Sansone, Lori A. Sansone, Sunshine, Serotonin, and Skin: A Partial Explanation for Seasonal Patterns in Psychopathology? Innov Clin Neurosci. 2013 Jul-Aug; 10 (7-8): 20–24, PMCID: PMC3779905, PMID: 24062970

Teresa Janz and Caryn Pearson, Vitamin D blood levels of Canadians, Date modified: 2015-11-27,The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 82-624-X

Diana Rucker, Jane A. Allan, Gordon H. Fick, David A. Hanley, Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians, Canadian Medical Association Journal, June 11, 2002 vol. 166 no. 12

Susan J Whiting, Kellie A Langlois, Hassanali Vatanparast, and Linda S Greene-Finestone, The vitamin D status of Canadians relative to the 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes: an examination in children and adults with and without supplement use, April 18, 2011, American Society for Nutrition, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 

Melanoma: deadliest type of skin cancer is on the rise, 28 May 2014, Canadian Cancer Society

Society releases updated sun safety recommendations, 06 June 2016, Canadian Cancer Society 

Intersun WHO’s Global UV Project - A Guide and Compendium, To reduce the burden of disease resulting from exposure to UV radiation while enjoying the sun safely, 2003, Radiation and Environmental Health Unit, Protection of the Human Environment, World Health Organization, Geneva

No. 9. Rest and Relaxation

Why Investing in Mental Health Will Contribute To Canada’s Economic Prosperity And To The Sustainability Of Our Health Care System, 2012, Mental Health Commission of Canada

Susan Crompton, What’s stressing the stressed? Main sources of stress among workers, October 13, 2011, 11-008-X, No. 92, 2011002, Canadian Social trends, Statistics Canada

Shields, M., Stress and depression in the employed population, 2006, Health Reports: Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 82-003, Vol. 17, no. 4

Towards Creating a Mental Health Action Plan for Canada, Roundtable Report, 2015, Ottawa, ON: Mental Health Commission of Canada

Manoj K. Bhasin , Jeffery A. Dusek , Bei-Hung Chang , Marie G. Joseph, John W. Denninger, Gregory L. Fricchione, Herbert Benson , Towia A. Libermann, Relaxation Response Induces Temporal Transcriptome Changes in Energy Metabolism, Insulin Secretion and Inflammatory Pathways, Published: May 1, 2013,

No. 10. Meditation

R. Jevning, R.K. Wallace, M. Beidebach: 1992, The physiology of meditation: A review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Elsevier Ltd.

Elissa S. Epel, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Jue Lin, Firdaus S. Dhabhar, Nancy E. Adler, Jason D. Morrow, and Richard M. Cawthon, 
Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress, PNAS, December 7, 2004, vol. 101, no. 49, 17315

Madhav Goyal, MD, MPH1; Sonal Singh, MD, MPH1; Erica M. S. Sibinga, MD, MHS; Neda F. Gould, PhD; Anastasia Rowland-Seymour, MD; Ritu Sharma, BSc; Zackary Berger, MD, PhD; Dana Sleicher, MS, MPH; David D. Maron, MHS; Hasan M. Shihab, MBChB, MPH; Padmini D. Ranasinghe, MD, MPH1; Shauna Linn, BA; Shonali Saha, MD; Eric B. Bass, MD, MPH; Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite, PhD, March 2014, Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-being, A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, The Journal of The American Medical Association: JAMA Internal Medicine

J. David Creswell, Laura E. Pacilio, Emily K. Lindsay, Kirk Warren Brown: June 2014, 
Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress, Psychoneuroendocrinology, The Official Journal of International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology (ISPNE), Volume 44, Pages 1–12

Sara W. Lazar, Catherine E. Kerr, Rachel H. Wasserman, Jeremy R. Gray,  Douglas N. Greve, Michael T. Treadway, Metta McGarvey, Brian T. Quinn,d Jeffery A. Dusek, Herbert Benson, Scott L. Rauch,  Christopher I. Moore, and Bruce Fischl, Neuroreport. 2005 Nov 28, 
Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness,  US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 16(17): 1893–1897

Paul Condon, Gaëlle Desbordes, Willa B. Miller, and David DeSteno, first published: August 21, 2013, Meditation Increases Compassionate Responses to Suffering, Psychological Science, October 2013; vol. 24, 10: pp. 2125-2127, SAGE Publications Inc.

Heffner KL, Crean HF, Kemp JE, , May 2016, Meditation programs for veterans with post traumatic stress disorder: Aggregate findings from a multi-site evaluation., 2016 Jan 11, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 8(3):365-74. doi: 10.1037/tra0000106

David S. Black, Steve Cole, Michael R. Irwin, Elizabeth Breen, Natalie M. St Cyr, Nora Nazarian, Dharma S. Khalsa, and Helen Lavretsky, Yogic meditation reverses NF-κB and IRF-related transcriptome dynamics in leukocytes of family dementia caregivers in a randomized controlled trial, Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Mar; 38(3): 348–355, Published online 2012 Jul 15. doi:  10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.06.011

Ivana Buric,  Miguel Farias,  Jonathan Jong,  Christopher Mee, Inti A. Brazil, What Is the Molecular Signature of Mind–Body Interventions? A Systematic Review of Gene Expression Changes Induced by Meditation and Related Practices, Front. Immunol., 16 June 2017 |

No. 11. Hygiene

Valerie A Curtis, PhD, A natural history of hygiene, 2007 Jan, v.18(1), PMC2542893, Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology

D. P. Strachan, Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. 1989 Nov 18; 299(6710): 1259–1260, British Medical Journal

SF Bloomfield, R Stanwell-Smith, RWR Crevel, and J Pickup, Too clean, or not too clean: the Hygiene Hypothesis and home hygiene, Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 2006 Apr; 36(4): 402–425, PMCID: PMC1448690, NCBI

Bloomfield SF, Exner M, Nath KJ, Pickup J, Scott EA, Signorelli C, Preventing the spread of infectious diseases in the European Union - targeted hygiene as a framework for sustainable hygiene, 10/02/2010, The International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene

International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene Fact Sheet: Developing Hygiene Practice for the Home – the IFH Risk-Based Approach to Home Hygiene (Targeted Hygiene), 25/01/2015, IFH

Bloomfield SF, Rook GA, Scott EA, Shanahan F, Stanwell-Smith R, Turner P, Time to abandon the hygiene hypothesis: new perspectives on allergic disease, the human microbiome, infectious disease prevention and the role of targeted hygiene., Perspect Public Health. 2016 Jul;136(4):213-24. doi: 10.1177/1757913916650225, NCBI

D. Pittet , Compliance with hand disinfection and its impact on hospital-acquired infections, Journal of Hospital Infection, August 2001, Volume 48, Supplement A, Pages S40-S46, doi:10.1016/S0195-6701(01)90012-X, ScienceDirect

Ginette Truchon, Joseph Zayed, Robert Bourbonnais, Martine Lévesque, Mélyssa Deland, Marc-Antoine Busque, Patrice Duguay, Thermal Stress and Chemicals - Knowledge Review and the Highest Risk Occupations in Québec,  Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), REPORT R-834

H Okada, C Kuhn, and J-F Bach, The hygiene hypothesis for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update, January 21, 2010, Clin Exp Immunol. 2010 Apr; 160(1): 1–9, doi:  10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04139.x, PMCID: PMC2841828

Mathilde Versini, Pierre-Yves Jeandel, Tomer Bashi, Giorgia Bizzaro, Miri Blank, and Yehuda Shoenfeld, Unraveling the Hygiene Hypothesis of helminthes and autoimmunity: origins, pathophysiology, and clinical applications, April 13, 2015, BMC Medicine, 201513:81, DOI: 10.1186/s12916-015-0306-7

Graham A. W. Rook, Christopher A. Lowry, and Charles L. Raison, Microbial Old Friends, immunoregulation and stress resilience, Evol Med Public Health. 2013; 2013(1): 46–64, Published online 2013 Apr 9, doi:  10.1093/emph/eot004, PMCID: PMC3868387

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Hand Hygiene Practices in Healthcare Settings, 2012, Cat: HP40-74/2012E-PDF, ISBN: 978-1-100-21324-8, Public Health Agency of Canada

Christopher D. Lynn, Johnna T. Dominguez, Jason A. Decaro, Tattooing to “Toughen up”: Tattoo experience and secretory immunoglobulin A, 4 March 2016, American Journal of Human Biology, DOI 10.1002/ajhb.22847, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Julia Halo Wildschutte, Zachary H. Williams, Meagan Montesion, Ravi P. Subramanian, Jeffrey M. Kidd, and John M. Coffin, Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations, 2016, PNAS

Muizzuddin N, Maher W, Sullivan M, Schnittger S, Mammone T., Physiological effect of a probiotic on skin, 2012 Nov-Dec, 63(6):385-95, Journal of Cosmetic Science, NCBI

No. 12. Life Skills

Global Evaluation Of Life Skills Education Programmes, August 2012, Final Report, United Nations Children’s Fund, Unicef

Partners in Life Skills Education, Conclusions from a United Nations Inter-Agency Meeting, 1999, Department of Mental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, WHO/MNH/MHP/99.2

Veneta A. Bastian, Nicholas R. Burns, Ted Nettelbeck, Emotional intelligence predicts life skills, but not as well as personality and cognitive abilities, October 2005, Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 1135–1145, Elsevier,, ScienceDirect

David M. Hayes and James M. Eddy, Stress Management Education: A Life Skills Approach For Health Promotion Professionals, 1985, Health & Kinesiology, Wellness Perspectives, 2, 4, 9-11, Education and Human Development, Texas A&M University

Gilbert J. Botvin, Kenneth W. Griffin, Life Skills Training: Empirical Findings and Future Directions, October 2004, Journal of Primary Prevention, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 211–232, doi:10.1023/B:JOPP.0000042391.58573.5b, SpringerLink

Joseph E. Zins, Donald I. Wagner, Charles A. Maher, Health Promotion in the Schools: Innovative Approaches to Facilitating Physical and Emotional Wellbeing, 1985, The Haworth Press, Inc.

Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measures, and Applications, edited by C. Richard Snyder, 2000, Academic Press

No. 13. Nature 

Charles Redman, Sander van der Leeuw, Corrie Griffith, Rimjhim Aggarwal, Christopher Boone, Billie Turner II, Urbanization and Global Environmental Change, October 2009 — February 2017, The Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability, National Science Foundation, International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)

Stanley T. Asah, David N. Bengston, Lynne M. Westphal, The Influence of Childhood: Operational Pathways to Adulthood Participation in Nature-Based Activities, 2009, Environment & Behaviour, SAJE journals

Ian Alcock, Mathew P. White, Benedict W. Wheeler, Lora E. Fleming, and Michael H. Depledge, Longitudinal Effects on Mental Health of Moving to Greener and Less Green Urban Areas, 2013, Environmental Science & Technology, 48 (2), pp 1247–1255, DOI: 10.1021/es403688w

Berman, M. G., Jonides, J., & Kaplan, S., The cognitive benefits of interacting with nature, 2008, Psychological Science, 19(12), 1207-1212

Bowler, D. E., Buyung-Ali, L. M., Knight, T. M., & Pullin, A. S. , A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments, 2010, BMC Public Health, 10, 456

Bringslimark, T., Patil, G., & Hartig, T., The Association Between Indoor Plants, Stress, Productivity And Sick Leave In Office Workers, 2008, Acta Horticulturae, 775, 117

Cervinka, R., Röderer, K., & Hefler, E. , Are nature lovers happy? On various indicators of well-being and connectedness with nature, 2012 Journal of Health Psychology, 17(3), 379-388

Coley, R., Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C., Where does community grow? The social context created by nature in urban public housing, 1997, Environment and Behavior, 29(4), 468

Devries, S., Natural environments -- healthy environments? An exploratory analysis of the relationship between greenspace and health, 2003, Environment and Planning, 35(10), 1717

Diette, G. B., Lechtzin, N., Haponik, E., Devrotes, A., & Rubin, H. R., Distraction therapy with nature sights and sounds reduces pain during flexible bronchoscopy: A complementary approach to routine analgesia, 2003, Chest, 123(3), 941-948

Dijkstra, K., Pieterse, M., & Pruyn, A., Physical environmental stimuli that turn healthcare facilities into healing environments through psychologically mediated effects: Systematic review, 2008,  Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(2), 166-181

Hartig, T., Restorative effects of natural environment experiences, 1991, Environment and Behavior, 23, 3

Hu, Z., Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest florida: An ecological geographical study, 2008, International Journal of Health Geographics, 7, 1.

Kim, T., Human brain activation in response to visual stimulation with rural and urban scenery pictures: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 2010, Science of the Total Environment, 408(12), 2600

Kuo, F., Aggression and violence in the inner city: Effects of environment via mental fatigue, 2001, Environment and Behavior, 33(4), 543

Largo-Wight, E., Chen, W. W., Dodd, V., & Weiler, R., Healthy workplaces: The effects of nature contact at work on employee stress and health, 2011, Public Health Reports (Washington, D.C.: 1974), 126 Suppl 1, 124-130

Lohr, V., Benefits of nature: What we are learning about why people respond to nature, 2007,  J. Physiological Anthropology: 26(2), 83

Marcus, C., & Barnes, M. (eds)., Healing gardens ( Trans.)., 1999,  New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons

Mind Organization., Ecotherapy: The green agenda for mental health, 2007, UK: Mind Publications

Gregory N. Bratman, Gretchen C. Daily, Benjamin J. Levy, James J. Gross, The benefits of nature experience: Improved affect and cognition, 2015, Landscape and Urban Planning, ScienceDirect,, Elsevier B.V.

Gregory N. Bratman, J. Paul Hamilton, Kevin S. Hahn, Gretchen C. Daily, and James J. Gross, Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation, 2015, vol. 112 no. 28, PNAS, 8567–8572, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1510459112

Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Anna Kasche, Annette Menzel, Thilo Jakob, Martina Thiel, Johannes Ring, Heidrun Behrend, Impact of Pollen on Human Health: More Than Allergen Carriers? 2003, International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 131:1–13 DOI: 10.1159/000070428

Bruce Knox, Cenk Suphioglu, Environmental and Molecular Biology of Pollen Allergens, May 1996, Trends in Plant Science 1(5): 156-164, Elsevier Science Ltd, PII $1360 - 1385(96)10018-2

Claudia Traidl-Hoffmanna, Anna Kaschea, Annette Menzelb, Thilo Jakoba,  Martina Thiela, Johannes Ringa, Heidrun Behrendt, Impact of Pollen on Human Health: More Than Allergen Carriers?  2003, International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 131:1–13, DOI: 10.1159/000070428

Wollin, Armin, Xiaolin Wang, and Patrick Tso, Nutrients regulate diamine oxidase release from intestinal mucosa, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 275.4 (1998): R969-R975

J. Poore, T. Nemecek, Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumersScience  01 Jun 2018:Vol. 360, Issue 6392, pp. 987-992, DOI:10.1126/science.aaq0216

Health PR

Richard Stephenson, Barbara Richardson, Adv in Health Sci Educ (2008), Building an Interprofessional Curriculum Framework for Health: A Paradigm for Health Function, 27 October 2006, 13: 547. doi:10.1007/s10459-006-9042-2 

Chudley (Chad) Werch, The Behavior-Image Model: a paradigm for integrating prevention and health promotion in brief interventions, HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH, Vol.22, no.5 2007, Pages 677–690, Advance Access publication 30 November 2006

Ron Labonte, PhD, and Ann Robertson, DrPH, Delivering the Goods, Showing Our Stuff: The Case for a Constructivist Paradigm for Health Promotion Research and Practice, doi: 10.1177/109019819602300404, Health Education & Behaviour, November 1996, vol. 23, no. 4 431-447, SAGE Journals

Aaron Antonovsky, The salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion, Health Promotion International (1996), 11 (1): 11-18.,
doi: 10.1093/heapro/11.1.11, Oxford Journals

Wendy Madsen, Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion, 2016, Health Promotion International, doi: 10.1093/heapro/daw039, Oxford University Press

Monica Eriksson and Bengt Lindström, Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale and the relation with health: a systematic review, 2006 May, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(5): 376–381. doi:  10.1136/jech.2005.041616

Irene García-Moya, Antony Morgan, The utility of salutogenesis for guiding health promotion: the case for young people's well-being, 2016, Health Promotion International, doi: 10.1093/heapro/daw008

The Mental Health Passport, 2014, Mental Health Working Group, Workplace Wellness Committee, Statistics Canada

Laurence J Kirmayer, The cultural diversity of healing: meaning, metaphor and mechanism, 2016, Medicine & Health, British Medical Bulletin, Volume 69, Issue 1, Pp. 33-48, Oxford Journals, Oxford University Press

Charles Dalcanale Tesser, Social medicalization (II): biomedical limits and proposals for primary care clinic, July/Dec. 2006, Interface (Botucatu), vol.10 no.20, Botucatu: 

Philip W. Sutton, Health, Illness, and Disability, 2013, Sociolology, Polity Press, 7th. Edition

Nancy Krieger, PhD, Proximal, Distal, and the Politics of Causation: What’s Level Got to Do With It?, Feb 2008, American Journal of Public Health, 98(2); PMC2376874

Miscellaneous Research

Barbara J.Rolls, Edmund T.Rolls, Edward A.Rowe, KevinSweeney, Sensory specific satiety in manPhysiology & Behavior, Volume 27, Issue 1, July 1981, Pages 137-142, 

Edmund T. Rolls, Taste and Olfactory Processing in the Brain and Its Relation to the Control of EatingCritical Reviews™ in Neurobiology, DOI:10.1615/CritRevNeurobiol.v11.i4.20 , pages 263-287

Morten L Kringelbachab, Edmund T Rolls, The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology, Progress in Neurobiology, Volume 72, Issue 5, April 2004, Pages 341-372,

ArnaudThomas, MichelVisalli, SylvieCordelle, PascalSchlich, Temporal Drivers of Liking, Food Quality and PreferenceVolume 40, Part B, March 2015, Pages 365-375,

N. Pineau, P. Schilch, Temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) as a sensory profiling technique, Rapid Sensory Profiling Techniques, Applications in New Product Development and Consumer Research - A volume in Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, 2015, Pages 269–306,

O'Doherty, J; Rolls, E T; Francis, S; Bowtell, R; McGlone, F; Kobal, G; Renner, B; Ahne, G, Sensory-specific satiety-related olfactory activation of the human orbitofrontal cortexNeuroReport: March 20th, 2000 - Volume 11 - Issue 4 - p 893–897
Chemical, Senses

Roberta ALTOMARE, Francesco CACCIABAUDO, Giuseppe DAMIANO, Vincenzo Davide PALUMBO, Maria Concetta GIOVIALE, Maurizio BELLAVIA, Giovanni TOMASELLO, Attilio Ignazio LO MONTE, The Mediterranean Diet: A History of Health, Iranian Journal of Public Health, Iran J Public Health. 2013; 42(5): 449–457.
Published online 2013 May 1, PMCID: PMC3684452, PMID: 23802101

Carlos Augusto MonteiroI; Renata Bertazzi LevyI,II; Rafael Moreira ClaroIII; Inês Rugani Ribeiro de Castro; Geoffrey Cannon, A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing, Cad. Saúde Pública vol.26 no.11 Rio de Janeiro Nov. 2010, 

S. Bodmer C. Imark, M. Kneubühl, Biogenic amines in foods: Histamine and food processing, Inflammation Research, June 1999, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 296–300

Amon U, Bangha E, Küster T, Menne A, Vollrath IB, Gibbs BF, Enteral histaminosis: Clinical implicationsInflamm Res. 1999 Jun;48(6):291-5, PMID: 10442479 DOI: 10.1007/s000110050462

Nicolas Ray, Mathias Currat, Pierre Berthier, and Laurent Excoffier, Recovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit simulationsMay 18, 2005, Journal of Genome Research:

Klok MD, Jakobsdottir S, Drent ML, The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review., Obes Rev. 2007 Jan;8(1):21-34., PMID: 17212793 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00270.x

David J.A. Jenkins, J. David Spence, Edward L. Giovannucci, Young-in Kim, Robert Josse, Reinhold Vieth, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Effie Viguiliouk, Stephanie Nishi, Sandhya Sahye-Pudaruth, Melanie Paquette, Darshna Patel, Sandy Mitchell, Meaghan Kavanagh, Tom Tsirakis, Lina Bachiri,  Atherai Maran, Narmada Umatheva, Taylor McKay, Gelaine Trinidad, Daniel Bernstein, Awad Chowdhury, Julieta Correa-Betanzo, Gabriella Del Principe, Anisa Hajizadeh, Rohit Jayaraman, Amy Jenkins, Wendy Jenkins, Ruben Kalaichandran, Geithayini Kirupaharan, Preveena Manisekaran, Tina Qutta, Ramsha Shahid, Alexis Silver, Cleo Villegasd, Jessica White, Cyril W.C. Kendall, Sathish C. Pichika, John L. Sievenpiper, Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for CVD Prevention and TreatmentJournal of the American College of Cardiology, Volume 71, Issue 22, 5 June 2018, Pages 2570–2584

J. Poore, T. Nemecek, Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers, Science  01 Jun 2018: Vol. 360, Issue 6392, pp. 987-992, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0216

Andrew Feenberg, Lecture for the Komaba undergraduates, June, 2003, What Is Philosophy of Technology?

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